Floor lamps are usually tall standing lamps which stand on the floor. The floor lamp usually has a weighted base to stop it falling over. A tall pole usually extends upwards with a light on top. Depending on the style of the lamp head, the floor lamp might be used as a torchiere for ambient light, or direct light downwards for reading in a chair. Ideally suited next to seating areas or beside a desk. Look also for full-spectrum bulbs for more natural light that's easier on the eyes. Floor lamps are portable lamps and simply plug into a wall socket.
Task lighting places a stronger light in one area of the room. Very good for tasks when you're sitting nearby. Most lamps can be used as task lights and can be quickly switched on when needed. Great for reading, crafts and hobbies. They also work well to light up one area of a room, e.g. on either side of a couch or in the corners of a room. Most of the light is directed downwards and out to the sides.